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Ower of the state but in other times worked hand in hand with state officials to build roads improve infrastructure and provide security.

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The Ottoman Empire in the Tanzimat Era

E two provinces and the crucial role of local intermediaries such as notables tribal leaders and merchants who at times undermined the p.

Yonca Köksal Özyaşar Æ 3 summary

This book is a new history of the Ottoman Empire's Tanzimat reforms in the provinces of Edirne and Ankara It studies variation across th.

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